Basic information about Turkey

Geographical and political position of Turkey

  • The territory of the Republic of Turkey takes about 814 578 SQ. km., at the join point of Europe and the Middle East. European and Asian parts of the country are separated by the Bosphorus.
  • Turkey is divided into seven geographic regions: Marmara region, the Black Sea region, the Mediterranean region, Southeastern Anatolia region, Aegean Sea and Central Anatolia region.
  • The coastline of Turkey: has a length of approximately 8000 km. The lands of Turkey are washed by the Black Sea to the North Sea, Aegean, and Marmara seas to the West and the Mediterranean Sea to the South.
  • The capital of Turkey: Ankara, located in Central Anatolia.
  • The neighbors of Turkey: Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran, Iraq, and Syria.
  • Turkey time lags for 2:00 from Greenwich Mean Time.

The time difference between Turkey and the largest cities of the world


-1 h


-1 h


-1 h


-2 hours

New York

-7 hours

Los Angeles

-10 hours


+6 hours


+7 hour


+8 hours


+1 h

The official language of Turkey is Turkish.

All the official documents submitted to the governmental bodies should be prepared in the Turkish language. English as an international language is used in business. With the 1920-ies, Turkey began to carry out their cultural and economic development, based on Western principles. Strong ties with Europe and the United States.

Political structure of Turkey

  • Turkey is the Democratic Republic, which was founded on October 29, 1923
  • The legislature - Parliament, the General National Assembly (Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi-TBMM) includes 550 seats of representatives of 81 provinces.

The Turkish legal system

  • Civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; Turkey is a member of the European Court of human rights.
  • The Turkish Constitution provides the legal framework.
  • The President is elected by popular vote for a term of five years (with the right to re-election for a second term), the Prime Minister is appointed by the President from among the members of Parliament, members of Parliament are elected for 5 years by popular vote
  • Civilian and military agencies.
  • The executive body is the Council of Ministers, consisting of the Prime Minister and 25 Ministers.
  • The judiciary has independent courts.
  • Turkey is a secular State. Freedom of religion is protected by the constitutional right.

Political parties in Turkey and their leaders:

  • The justice and Development Party (AKP)-Recep Tayyip Erdogan (ruling party)
  • The Motherland Party (Anavatan Partisi) is a leader Erkan Mumcu
  • The Democratic Party (DP) leader Husamettin Cindoruk
  • Democratic Left Party (DSP)-Masum Turker
  • Democratic social party (DTP) Ahmet Turk-
  • Happiness Party (SP) Numan-Kurtulmuŝ
  • Freedom and solidarity Party (ODP)-Hayri Kozanoglu
  • The great Union Party (BBP)-Mushin Âzydžilglu
  • Nationalist movement party (MHP) Devlet Bahceli-
  • Parti Sunrise (HYP)-Yasar Nuri Ozturk
  • Republican people's Party (CHP) Deniz Baykal-
  • Socio-democratic people's Party (SHP)-Uğur Džilasun
  • Youth Party (GP)-Cem Cengiz Uzan

The national currency of Turkey

  • The national currency is the Turkish Lira (TL-TRL), which entered into force on January 1, 2009
  • As a result of the adoption of law No. 5083, published in the Official Gazette January 31, 2004, the new currency unit was named the "new Turkish Lira" (YTL-TRY) and implemented with effect from January 1, 2005
  • Until January 1, 2009, old banknotes that denominated in YTL were withdrawn from circulation, and new banknotes denominated in Turkish Liras were again introduced.

Population Of Turkey

  • The total population of Turkey: 76 805 524 people
  • Approximately 75% of Turkey's population, which is equivalent to 75 517 100 (according to December 2008) live in the cities.
  • Percentage of the population growth in Turkey, after declining significantly over the past decades, is about 1.31% per annum; demographers predict population growth up to 80-85 million in the next 20 years, which is comparable to the largest State of EU-Germany, with 83 million inhabitants.
  • In 2008, about 75% of the population was considered urban (compared to 27% in 1960), and the urbanization process will likely continue for the foreseeable future. About 25% of the population is concentrated around the Marmara Sea.

The largest population cities in Turkey:

  • Istanbul-population 12 697 164 people
  • Ankara-population 4 548 939 people
  • Izmir-population 3 795 978 people
  • Bursa-population 2 528 963 people
  • Konya-population 2 020 868 people
  • Adana-population 2 006 319 people
  • Antalya-population 1 859 275 people
  • Gaziantep-population 1 612 223 people
  • Mersin-1 602 908 persons population
  • Şanlıurfa-population 1 574 224 people

The concept of "e-Government" in Turkey

E-government project is coordinated by the Prime Minister of Turkey and the National Committee. After the signing of Turkey project "E-Europe", which was discussed at the Conference, leaders of the Member countries of the European Union, held in mid-2001, the Prime Minister of Turkey gave a start to the project.

MERNIS is one of the most significant measures of e-government project which provides every citizen with an ID number that will simplify most social procedures and relations with public authorities. This measure has been in effect since November 2006, during the transition period from November 1, 2006, and January 1, 2007, citizens use as an identification number and tax number. By the beginning of 2007, ID numbers are valid only. A citizen may submit his identity with the tax authorities, University Admissions when banking operations and in all procedures involving public bodies. This project not only reduces delays in bureaucratic ways, causing loss of time and money, but also guarantees the security of the country and its citizens.

As a result of the work done within the framework of the planned concept development of electronic media, the number of Web sites with the domain "" increased from 1647 in 2003 to  6775 in 2007. Similarly, the increase in the number of other public Web sites with 1138 in 2003 to 11.725 in 2007.

The aim of the e-Government strategy for Turkey is the final formation of the infrastructure and the introduction of e-Government main portal providing access to all kinds of public services for 2010, 2011.

International relations of Turkey

The republic of Turkey attaches great importance to the establishment of the strong and extensive regional and international relations based on mutual understanding and cooperation.

Turkey is an active member of many leading regional and international organizations, such as the United Nations, the North Atlantic Alliance (NATO), the Organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO), the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), the Organization of Islamic Council (OIC), the Organization of the Black Sea economic cooperation (BSEC), the International Bank for reconstruction and development (IBRD), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Group of twenty finance ministries and central bankers (the G20 developing countries) and the Asian Development Bank. Turkey is a member of the European Customs Union since 1996 and a candidate to the EU since October 2005.

At the EU Summit in Helsinki on 10-11 December 1999, Turkey was officially recognized, without any preconditions, the candidate in the EU on an equal footing with the other candidates. The possibility of Turkey's joining the EU was considered in the context of a country's ability to meet the political criteria of Copenhagen.